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How can we resolve the conflict between the provisions of Section 2(s) of the Industrial Disputes Act which says that an apprentice is a workman and section 18 of the Apprentices Act which says that an apprentice is not a worker ?

The conflict can be resolved by applying the principle of harmonious construction so that each provision may operate without encroaching on the field of the other. Thus, a person who is appointed as an apprentice under the provisions of the Apprentices Act would not be a workman under section 2(s) of the Industrial Disputes Act, but a person who is designated as an apprentice but is not governed by the Apprentices Act would be a workman under the said section.

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